Liquid Water Tracers in Unconventional Reservoirs
Liquid water tracers have a broad application in the oil and gas industry. They are used to monitor the flow patterns between various wells and help determine the reservoir conditions. This technology is useful for regular waterflood operations, field development, and EOR pilot operations. One family of tracers is based on fluorescent silica colloids. These colloids are nanometric in size and contain fluorescent dyes that can be quantified using conventional fluorescence apparatus. At this tracer company
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The use of chemical tracers has increased dramatically, particularly in unconventional reservoirs. Typically, chemical tracers are water or oil-soluble and should invade a significant portion of the SRV. Tracer backflow can provide insight into the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing as well as the SRV size. These tracers can be found in emulsion or controlled-release forms. In this paper, we analyze tracer flowback in unconventional reservoirs using these two methods.
The IPTT method can also be used to determine the interfacial area between two liquid phases. It is important to note that the differences between the two methods depend on the saturation of the wetting phase. At lower saturations, the gas-phase values are much larger than the aqueous-phase values. This means that the aqueous-phase method is an incomplete measure of interfacial area.
It is possible to calculate the hydrologic cycle using atmospheric models. In these models, the concentrations of water tracer isotopes can be calculated based on a combination of a liquid water tracer and an atmospheric model. This allows us to determine how important different fractionation processes are for the hydrological cycle. The model resolution will determine the quality of the hydrological cycle simulation.
In one study, an operator in the Permian Basin evaluated the effectiveness of far-field diversion techniques. Liquid water and chemical tracers allowed the operator to quantify and establish flow rates between the wells. They also determined whether a novel diversion strategy would prevent negative fracture interference.
Liquid water tracers
have a wide range of applications, from monitoring river flow to studying water quality. Tracers are especially helpful for studying surface water currents and identifying life-threatening rip currents. They are biodegradable and non-toxic. They can even help predict floodwater movement.
SDBS was able to detect residual levels of tetrachloroethane. This was achieved by flushing the columns with CO2 and then introducing de-aerated water. This method is based on prior studies and is capable of achieving water-saturated conditions. Before introducing the organic liquid, non-reactive tracer tests were carried out to characterize the porous media and the adsorption of SDBS.
Tracer data also help characterize the fracture stage. For example, when compared to data from silica sands, the results showed that soils had larger maximum specific interfacial areas compared to silica sands. These results
also showed that surface roughness was an important factor in the film-associated interfacial area.
Check out this post for more details related to this article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dye_tracing