Liquid Water Tracers
Tracers can be used to determine the rate at which water flows through a system. Some tracers are purposefully introduced, while others are environmentally present. A common use is to determine the saturation of a well. Tracers may also be used to track the movement of groundwater. In this article, we will discuss two common chemical water tracers and how they are used. Click here
for more details on the best water tracers.
The main challenge with reactive tracers is selecting the best tracer compound to meet specific requirements. For example, a thermo-sensitive tracer test requires a tracer that decays slowly and reliably. However, a tracer that decays too quickly makes the test more difficult to implement. As a result, tracers are continually being developed to overcome these problems.
Reactive tracers undergo chemical or temperature-driven reactions to determine their location in a reservoir. For this reason, prior knowledge of their reaction mechanisms is required to design an effective tracer. In addition, the preferred reaction mechanism is a pseudo-first-order reaction. The temperature dependence of the reaction is a vital factor in determining its thermo-sensitivity.
There are a number of different chemical water tracers available for a wide variety of applications. Some are used in oil production to measure the amount of oil and gas in the reservoir. Fluorinated benzoic acids are the most widely used for well tracer services
. They have low natural background and a detection limit of a few milligrams per liter. These tracers can also be detected via electrochemical detection after separation on a high-pressure liquid chromatograph.
Several IPTT studies have been published. However, the results have not been compared. In this study, data from several studies were compiled. In addition to the physicochemical properties of the tracer compounds, the interfacial area and the amount of the tracer in the sorbed phase were calculated.
To calculate the equilibrium concentration of a tracer in water, we need to calculate the partition coefficient. This coefficient is a measure of the relative mass of the tracer in air and water. Ideally, the partition coefficient is one when the tracer has the same mass in each phase. Most commonly used tracers have a partition coefficient of 0.01 to 0.5 at 10 degC and one atm of pressure. However, this value can change quickly.
For unconventional reservoirs, chemical tracer usage has increased dramatically. Typically, a chemical tracer is manufactured as a liquid or solid substance. When injected into a well, they are used to monitor the movement of oil and gas. These tracers are pumped along with the fracturing fluid to maintain a constant concentration.
Environmental tracers include a number of common gasses that occur at natural atmospheric temperatures and pressures. These gases are soluble in water and provide valuable information on groundwater processes. Their concentration in water is proportional to the concentration of the gas in the air. This relationship is known as Henry's Law, and can be expressed in Equation 6. Find out more about this topic on this link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flow_tracer